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JDBC is a vital part of Java development when dealing with databases. It provides a standardized way to connect to and manipulate data in relational databases, making it an essential tool for building robust and data-driven Java applications.


  • What is JDBC?
  • Type of Drivers
  • Steps to access
  • Connection
  • Statement
  • CRUD operations
  • Prepared Statement
  • Callable statement

What Is JDBC?

  • Java Data Base Connectivity is the Java API for accessing and
    updating the databases.
  • Using JDBC, developers can interact with many databases like
    Oracle DB, MongoDB, NoSQL etc, with the same piece of code.
  • Using different drivers, the java code interacts with the different
    databases in a seamless manner.

Type of Drivers

  • Type 1:- This is a JDBC-ODBC bridge that provides access to a database through an ODBC driver. This type of driver is slow and only appropriate for situations where no other JDBC driver is available.
  • Type 2 :- This type is written partly in native-API and partly in Java. This type of driver uses the client API of the database to connect to the database.
  • Type 3:- This type of driver translates JDBC calls into the middleware vendor’s protocol, which is then translated to the database access protocol by the middleware server.
  • Type 4:- This type of driver is written in Java and connects to the database directly.

Steps To Access

  • Load the JDBC driver.
  • Obtain database connection.
  • Create a Statement object.
  • Create the ResultSet
  • Close the JDBC objects.


  • The Connection interface represents a connection to a database. You establish a connection using a JDBC driver’s URL, username, and password.
  • Example:
					String url = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydb";
String username = "username";
String password = "password";
Connection connection = DriverManager
.getConnection(url, username, password);


Connection Interface

  • Connection is the session between the java application and the database.
  • A factory of Statement, Prepared Statement etc.
  • Provides transaction management mechanisms like commit, rollback.
  • Some methods are createStatement(), commit(), rollback()

Statement Interface

  • Statement interface provides the queries to interact with the
  • Some of the methods are executeQuery(String),
    executeUpdate(String), execute(String)

CRUD Operations

  • Create Query :- statement.executeUpdate(“insert into emp values (.. , .. , .. )”)
  • Retrieve Query :- statement.executeQuery (“select * from emp);
  • Update Query :- statement.executeUpdate(“update emp set name =.. where id = .. “);
  • Delete Query :- statement.executeUpdate(“delete from emp where id = .. “);

Prepared Statement

  • Prepared Statements are used to improve the performance of the application as these use the parameterized strings, which just get compiled once.
  • E.g. connection.prepareStatement(“update emp set name=? where id=?”);

Callable Statement

  • CallableStatement interface is used for calling the stored procedures and functions from java programs.
  • E.g. CallableStatement stmt=con.prepareCall(“{call myprocedure(?,?)}”);
  • CallableStatement stmt=con.prepareCall(“{?= call myfunction(?,?)}”);