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Spring and Struts 2 Integration

Integrating Spring and Struts 2 is a common approach to combine the benefits of both frameworks. Spring provides robust dependency injection and transaction management, while Struts 2 offers a powerful framework for building web applications. In this integration, Spring manages the business logic, and Struts 2 handles the web layer. Below are the steps to integrate Spring and Struts 2:

Step 1: Create a Spring Application

Start by creating a Spring application with your business logic. You should have your Spring beans configured in an XML or Java configuration file, along with any service classes, DAOs, and other components.

Step 2: Configure Spring Beans

Ensure that your Spring beans are configured correctly, and that you’ve defined your business logic components as Spring beans. Here’s an example of a Spring bean configuration in an XML file (spring-config.xml):

					<!-- Define your Spring beans here -->
<bean id="userService" 
    <!-- Configure properties and dependencies -->


Step 3: Configure Spring with Struts 2

Now, configure Spring to work with Struts 2. You’ll need to create or modify the struts.xml configuration file to enable Spring integration. Include the following line in your struts.xml:

					<constant name="struts.objectFactory" 
value="spring" />


This tells Struts 2 to use Spring as the object factory to create and manage your action classes and other objects.

Step 4: Create Struts 2 Action Classes

Create Struts 2 action classes that will interact with your Spring-managed services. These classes should extend ActionSupport. Here’s an example:

					import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;

public class UserAction extends 
ActionSupport {

    private UserService userService;
// Inject the UserService via setter injection
    public void setUserService
    (UserService userService) {
        this.userService = userService;

    // Implement your action methods here


Step 5: Configure Dependency Injection

To inject Spring-managed beans into your Struts 2 action classes, you need to configure Spring’s dependency injection. In your struts.xml, use the element to reference the Spring interceptor:

					<action name="someAction" class="com
    <interceptor-ref name="defaultStack"/>
    <result name="success">/success.jsp</result>


Step 6: Use Spring Beans in Action Classes

Now you can use the Spring-managed beans in your Struts 2 action classes. For example, you can call the userService from the UserAction class:

					public String execute() {
    User user = userService.getUserById(userId);
    // Perform actions with the user object
    return SUCCESS;


Step 7: Run Your Integrated Application

Deploy your Spring and Struts 2 integrated application to a web server, and access it through the configured URLs. Struts 2 actions will utilize the Spring-managed beans for business logic.

Ensure you have both Spring and Struts 2 libraries in your project’s classpath. Additionally, consider configuring transaction management and other Spring features based on your application’s requirements.

This integration allows you to leverage the strengths of both frameworks. Spring manages your application’s business logic and provides dependency injection, while Struts 2 handles the web layer and request handling.

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