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Variable in SPEL

  • In the Spring Expression Language (SPEL), you can use variables to store and reference values within expressions. Variables allow you to introduce dynamic values into your expressions, making them more flexible and powerful.
Here’s how you can work with variables in SPEL:

Defining Variables:

  • You can define variables within SPEL using the # symbol followed by curly braces {}. Inside the curly braces, you specify the variable name and its initial value.
    myVar = 42,
    message = 'Hello, World!',
    currentDate = new java.util.Date()


Referencing Variables:

  • To reference a variable within an expression, you use the variable name without the # symbol. SPEL will look up the variable by name and substitute its value into the expression.
    result = myVar * 2,
    greeting = 'Welcome, ' + message,
    = currentDate.getTime()


Using Variables in Expressions:

  • Variables can be used in various expressions, including arithmetic, string concatenation, method calls, and more.
    sum = num1 + num2,
    fullName = firstName 
    + ' ' + lastName,
    isAfter = currentDate


Updating Variable Values:

  • You can update the value of a variable by redefining it in another part of the expression.
    counter = 0,
    counter = counter + 1


Variable Scope:

  • Variables in SPEL have a limited scope and are typically used within the context of a specific expression. They are not meant to be used for broader application state management.

Using Variables in Spring Configuration:

  • You can also use variables in Spring configuration files (XML or properties files) to define dynamic values for bean properties or other configuration settings.
					<bean id="myBean" 
    <property name="maxValue" 
    value="#{myVar}" />


Accessing External Variables:

  • In addition to defining your own variables, you can access external variables such as system properties, environment properties, or bean properties using the @ symbol followed by the variable name.
    systemProperty =
    envProperty =
    beanProperty =

  • Variables in SPEL allow you to introduce dynamic values into your expressions and make your Spring configurations more flexible. They are particularly useful when you need to parameterize configuration values or perform calculations within expressions.